Is cyberbullying perpetration related to nervousness, melancholy and suicidal ideation amongst lebanese adolescents_ Outcomes from a cross-sectional research – BMC Psychology

Examine design

This cross-sectional research was carried out between Might and June 2021 and included a pattern of adolescents aged between 13 and 16 years outdated, recruited from personal faculties chosen in a handy manner from all Lebanese districts. Following the restrictions imposed by the Lebanese authorities as a result of COVID-19 and the web educating adopted by faculties, the gathering of the information was executed utilizing a web-based kind. The questionnaire was examined on 25 college students, previous to information assortment, with the goal of clarifying questions if mandatory, correcting errors and assessing the size of the questionnaire; the outcomes of the pilot research was not included within the evaluation. We contacted the administrators of fifteen chosen faculties, defined the target of the research and introduced the questionnaire to them; the anonymity of the college and college students was ensured. We contacted three faculties in every governorate; the outline of the information assortment is summarized in Desk 1.

Desk 1 Description of information assortment Full dimension desk


The research pattern consisted of 520 college students from grades 7, 8 and 9 in personal faculties in all Lebanese districts; the governorates had been labeled in response to their geographical proximity: Beirut, Mount Lebanon, North Lebanon (together with Akkar), South Lebanon (together with Nabatieh) and Bekaa (together with Baalback-Hermel). All college students randomly chosen from lessons and aged precisely 13 to 16 years of age (date of taking the assessments) had been eligible to participate of this research. Exclusions consisted of those that didn’t meet these standards or refused to take part on this research. It ought to be famous that the target of the research, the anonymity of the contributors, the shortage of non-public revenue, the settlement of the ethics committee, the shortage of compensation of any form, the liberty of option to take part or not, had been defined within the introductory paragraph of the Google Kind. After approving these statements and asking for the dad and mom’ approval, the scholar was guided to the precise questions.

Minimal pattern dimension calculation

In keeping with the G-power software program, and based mostly on an impact dimension f2 = 2%, an alpha error of 5% and an influence of 80%, whereas making an allowance for 20 components to be captured within the multivariate evaluation, the outcomes confirmed {that a} minimal variety of 395 contributors was wanted to conduct this research.


The questionnaire consisted of three measuring devices used to individually assess every of the 4 variables studied and questions learning the socio-demographic traits of the contributors (age, gender, dad and mom’ standing, affect of issues on work (together with all pupil behaviors in school and related penalties similar to college dropout, getting remarks and repeating a yr), and family crowding index). The latter displays the socio-economic standing of the household and was calculated by dividing the variety of individuals by the variety of rooms in the home, besides the loos and the kitchen [20]. As well as, a query concerning the presence of suicidal ideation the final month has been requested to college students with a dichotomous reply (sure/no). The digital questionnaire was self-administered in Arabic, the contributors’ mom tongue. The calculated time to finish the questionnaire was fifteen minutes.

Cyber bully/cyber sufferer questionnaire

The “Cyber Bully/Cyber Sufferer Scale” has been translated into Arabic by way of the ‘Ahead-and-Backward’ methodology. This scale was translated first from English to Arabic by an expert translator, secondly from Arabic to English by one other skilled translator. A comparability was made between the unique English model and the English translated copy by a psychological well being skilled, with no main corrections made to the ultimate Arabic model. The Cyber Bully/Cyber Sufferer Questionnaire was used to evaluate cyberbullying habits [21]. Authorization to translate and use the dimensions was obtained from Dr. Mehmet Horzum. This scale consists of 15 gadgets and is split into two sub-dimensions: the primary consists of seven gadgets and evaluates cyber sexual harassment in our on-line world, and the second consists of eight gadgets and evaluates the insertion of embarrassing and malicious content material on our on-line world. It ought to be famous that this scale is used to evaluate on the identical time or individually the habits of perpetration and/or victimization. We used solely the half concerning the harasser. Questions had been rated from 1 = By no means to five = on a regular basis. Factors are scored by including all of the factors of the weather on the dimensions. The full rating on “made by me” is taken into account the cyber stalker’s rating and the entire rating on “made for me” is taken into account the cyber-victim rating. In our research, a better rating on “made by me” gadgets signifies a better stage of harassing habits.

Lebanese nervousness scale (LAS-10)

This ten-item self-report scale was developed in Lebanon and validated amongst adults [22], and adolescents [23]. Seven of the ten gadgets are rated on a 5-point Likertscale, whereas the opposite three questions are scored on a 4-point Likert scale [22]. The full rating was obtained by including up all responses, with increased scores indicating increased nervousness.

Affected person well being questionnaire for adolescents (PHQ-A)

This scale was being examined to be used in adolescents and offers an efficient software for the early detection and recognition of psychological issues on this high-risk group [24]. The Arabic translation was validated by Al-Amer et al. (2020) [25]. It’s a scale composed of (1) 9 gadgets that may be self-administered, which assess the signs skilled within the earlier two weeks; all gadgets obtain a response utilizing a four-point Likert scale (0 = In no way to three = virtually on daily basis); 2) An merchandise that extends over the yr previous the award; 3) An merchandise on the impact of his struggling and on his each day efficiency; 4) An merchandise that extends over one month earlier than the handover; and 5) An merchandise that assesses the presence of suicide makes an attempt previously. PHQ-A measures useful impairment, suicidal ideation and suicide makes an attempt [24]. To calculate the entire of the dimensions, it’s a query of including all of the scores of the gadgets collectively. The full rating can vary from 0 to 27 (0 to 4: no extreme melancholy/5 to 9: delicate melancholy/ 10 to 14: average/ 15 to 19: reasonably extreme/ 20 to 27: Extreme) [26].

Statistical evaluation

SPSS software program v.23 was used to investigate the information. The normality of distribution of the nervousness and melancholy scores was confirmed because the skewness and kurtosis values fell inside the − 2 and + 2 vary. Due to this fact, the Scholar t check was used to match two means, whereas the ANOVA check was used to match three or extra means. Correlations between two steady variables had been examined utilizing the Pearson check. Two linear regressions had been carried out, taking the nervousness and melancholy scores as dependent variables.

Relating to suicidal ideation, the Chi-square check was used to match two categorical variables, whereas the Scholar t check was used to match two means. A logistic regression was carried out, taking the presence/absence of suicidal ideation within the final month because the dependent variable. All variables that confirmed a p < 0.25 within the bivariate evaluation had been entered as impartial ones within the multivariable fashions. Significance was set at p < 0.05.